Young people who spend a lot of time on the Internet may exhibit classic addiction behaviors, according to new research.
Researchers at Missouri University of Science and Technology, Duke University Medical Center and the Duke Institute of Brain Sciences, tracked the Internet usage of 69 college students over two months. What they found was a correlation between certain types of Internet usage and addictive behaviors.
“About 5 to 10 percent of all Internet users appear to show web dependency, and brain imaging studies show that compulsive Internet use may induce changes in some brain reward pathways that are similar to that seen in drug addiction,” said P. Murali Doraiswamy, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center.
For the study, the students were asked to complete a 20-question survey called the Internet-Related Problem Scale. The scale measures the level of problem a person is having due to Internet usage from 0 to 200.
This scale was developed to identify characteristics of addiction, such as introversion, withdrawal, craving, tolerance and negative life consequences. The survey also captures escapism, ratings of loss of control and reduced time on daily activities.
The researchers also tracked the campus Internet usage of participating students over two months.
They found that the range of Internet-Related Problem Scale scores among participating students over the two-month period ranged from 30 to 134 on the 200-point scale. The average score was 75.
Participants’ total Internet usage ranged from 140 megabytes to 51 gigabytes, with an average of 7 gigabytes, and that use was divided into several categories, including gaming, chatting, file downloading, email, browsing and social networking (Facebook and Twitter). The total scores exhibited the highest correlations with gaming, chatting and browsing, and the lowest with email and social networking.
Classic addiction behaviors were tied to specific Internet activities, according to the researchers. For example, they found that introversion was closely tied to gaming and chatting; craving to gaming, chatting and file downloading; and loss of control to gaming.
Students who scored high on the introversion scale spent 25 percent more time on instant messaging than those who scored low on the scale. Students who reported increased craving on the Internet-Related Problem Scale downloaded 60 percent more content than those who scored low. Not surprisingly, students who scored high on the Iscale spent about 10 percent of their Internet time on gaming, compared to 5 percent for the group that scored low.
“We tend to take drug-related addictions more seriously than if someone were using the Internet as a drug,” says Doraiswamy. “The negative consequences of the Internet may be quite underappreciated.”
According to the researchers, the demand for professional help for a digital detox is on the rise, but there is little data to guide diagnosis or care. They believe that results from this study and others may shed light on the potential of the Internet to affect behavioral and emotional wellness and the need to establish criteria for normal versus problematic usage in different age groups.
The team cautioned that the current study is exploratory and does not establish a cause and effect relationship between Internet usage and addictive behavior.
The reseachers add that most of the students scored a little lower than the mid-point of the scale. Furthermore, students exhibiting problematic Internet usage may also suffer from other mental disorders, a fact that was not examined in this study.