Judicial workers, including three judges, began evicting residents on a tract in Herradura on the Pacific coast.
Some 130 families were living on Parcel 13 in about 50 homes, said the Fuerza Publica.
The occupation of the land had been litigated since the 1990s. Many of the occupants thought they had title to their properties because they had paid for it, said an expat familiar with the case.
Officials said that the evictions might take some time because of the number of homes involved. The families had been notified previously, and some quickly began removing their possessions.
More than 140 police officers were involved in the early morning eviction. They arrived at 6 a.m. to protect the judicial workers.
The parcel has three streets and is in an area where many ownerships are contested. Some on Parcel 13 said they had lived there for up to 13 years. Some homes were fairly substantial but others were just sheet metal and some lumber.
The evictions were ordered by a judge in Puntarenas, officials said. The original owners of the property were said to be U.S. citizens, who purchased it years ago.